The magazine Palabra Created in the mid-eighties in the South East of Mexico, CIACH publishes a monthly magazine La Palabra broadcast in the indigenous rural communities, it organizes discussions in communities and also disseminates information on the Net. Ostensibly, even if no contact directly with the Zapatista rebellion, the CIACH supports its claims and participates in the process of asserting political, cultural and social Indians. He maintains regular contact and association with the”Enlace Civil”, prozapatiste pressure group that gathers information from the native villages, about violations of human rights because of the federal army or paramilitary groups. A commitment to it being now a target of the authorities in the tense situation in Chiapas.

  • The role of CIACH
  • Indian rights
  • Resumen Informativo
  • Palabra the Internet
  • With civil society
  • Funding and perspectives
  • Contact

The role of CIACH

Located almost at the end of the long narrow street Flavio Paniagua as far back from the main avenue that connects the Parque Central in San Cristobal de Las Casas in his local market of India, the current offices of CIACH are both close and back to the center of the city… Close enough not to feel too far away from the heart of the colonial city around key locations that ensures the future of the region, far enough away as to enjoy a certain peace of mind essential to the work.

In What made ​​these offices the monthly La Palabra (speech), distributed in thirty municipalities of the State of Chiapas in the central region of Altos around the colonial city and tourist center of San Cristobal de Las Casas, in La Selva and valleys where now lives a large part of the Mayan Indian population, and the north of the state.”In recent years, information has become a strategic area for the government and the army, says Elizabeth Polito Barrios, head of CIACH. More than ever, they intend to control it. As long as in the source distribution. They have their own version of the current state and they impose by whatever means. This ensures the”loyalty” of the major media – newspapers, radio and television – but also, and even worse, by intimidating the independent media that do not comply.” In short, the Centre has an independent certainly not the favor of the authorities, like many other actors of civil society Chiapas. The CIACH is defined as”a media open to the outside and serving the people and Indian and peasant organizations in the region”. It’s objectives? Informed of what’s really going on in Chiapas, “bringing in communities and grassroots elements that help in the analysis of reality” and “help raise people’s participation in making decisions that concern”. The government has the will to suppress the attempts to change data in the region. In particular, when they come from the Indian communities themselves. All independent organizations that want to give voice to the excluded are viewed by the government as obstacles to be swept or accused of all evils. Evidenced by the smear campaigns that the organizations most claims have been victims in the media when it is not harassment or even open repression…

Modestly but continuously, with ups and downs, the work of CIACH is therefore to cope. To participate, against all odds and from his work on information, self-organization of rural Indian communities and the articulation of popular movements independent. Meetings for analysis and discussion are organized in villages or with representatives of farmers’ organizations, or Indian human rights. From the themes developed in La Palabra – land distribution, marketing of coffee, elections, etc.. – And experience that each organization or individual can have, participants try to understand their social, political and economic and increase their ability to act on it.

Indian rights

The situation is not rosy every day for the campesinos (peasants) in Chiapas, especially for Mayan Indians, the majority in this part of the state where the work CIACH. Majority but obviously forgotten in the distribution of wealth in the region. And, for more than five hundred years! Very rich in natural resources (wood, oil, water, livestock, tourism…), the Chiapas only benefits a minority of Chiapas braced on their privileges. Today, however, following the Zapatista uprising of 1994 and despite the impasse in the peace process and the deterioration of the situation that tends to prevail, most of the Indians of this region of Mexico continue to brag their “Ya basta!” (that’s enough!).”Earth, education, food, health, shelter, freedom, democracy, justice… that’s what we were refused, that is what we demand.”

In 1985, when the center was established, its leaders had first intended to coordinate efforts in the field of information from many sectors of society in turmoil. Teachers, peasant movements, indigenous associations, students… each group at the time realized its own newsletter. All with the same goal: to circulate among the members an alternative to the official version information and prevent almost systematic repression suffered by independent organizations. These bulletins were still by force of circumstances sectoral and geographically limited. Students from San Cristobal had their own magazine and were the main players, the peasants of the northeast of the state not only by them spoke to the press releases sent, etc.. The CIACH was then formed with the idea to provide each organization a common space of expression and information, where one could find information on all the players and where the links between them would be favored…

The first steps were laborious. Without a lot of ways, the few volunteers began to buy, read, codify and classify systematically all the newspapers and news magazines sold in Chiapas. Besides the specific contribution of each of the independent organizations in the region, information was gathered and made available to all popular sectors of Chiapas, organized outside government institutions.

Resumen Informativo

Soon, however, was felt the need to publish this information in order to increase accessibility. Thus was born the first publication of CIACH the”Resumen Informativo” (Summary Information), a monthly manageable than fifty pages printed in a thousand copies, sold or distributed within a large network of grassroots organizations more or less Consolidated: peasant and indigenous organizations, such as the Central Independiente de Campesinos y Obreros Agricolas (CIOAC), the Union of Unions”are Pajala Kactic”, the Committee Defensa de la Libertad Indigena (CDLI), the Consejo of indigenous representatives in Los Altos de Chiapas (CRIACH )…, teacher union (Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Educación…), sector workers of hydroelectric power, student associations, promoters or” Pastoral” of the Catholic Church in the diocese of Bishop Samuel Ruiz, development NGOs or human rights organizations, research centers, etc..

The edition of Resumen Informativo was divided into eight parts, each them with a descriptive summary of the facts of the past month in one of eight areas of social life in Chiapas. The current agricultural union, urban, educational, political, economic and religious there was treated in detail in conjunction with events related to the Mexican border with Central America and the lives of Guatemalan refugees in Chiapas. The opportunity therefore for managers or members of many grassroots organizations to learn from information previously inaccessible due to cost, distance and lack of independence of the mainstream media…

Each new issue of Resumen Informativo was also an opportunity for readers to”take stock of the ins and outs of the news of the region and establish links between different issues”. And it is precisely to emphasize this aspect of his work, along with business writing and editing, CIACH organized from the beginning, periodic workshops and decentralized to”regional scan” for all the popular actors of social life in Chiapas. Workshops, to ensure the”memory”, also came out on a new quarterly publication:”The Review of Regional Workshops trends”.

In the early nineties, against a backdrop of economic crisis and a reflux movement social area facing repression, CIACH experienced a slump of three to four years and went to cease operations of writing and editing. Only continued to be provided by a team employee, but now reduced to a minimum, the job classification of information and maintaining the center.

Palabra the Internet

Today, CIACH found a high level of activity. The interest aroused by the news of Chiapas and the future of the Zapatista rebellion abroad brought him new ways. And, more than ever, information literacy is one of the central issues of the imbroglio Chiapas, both in rural than in urban India and the rest of Mexico. The monthly Resumen Informativo the eighties has been replaced by La Palabra, shorter, more illustrated than its predecessor and still pulled a few thousand copies. Next to this periodical, the CIACH publishes from time to time, on its own initiative or on a proposal from the outside, various documents: a detailed chronology of the conflict in 1998, full text of the agreements on indigenous rights signed by the government and the Zapatista rebellion in 1996, assessing the impact of Chiapas in the Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), selection of news of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), etc..

Since 1996, the daily information, and analysis of cross CIACH is only intended only to residents of Chiapas. It is now the turn of Mexico or the world via the Internet.”It is also a way for us to qualify the idyllic image of the country that the government intends to promote outside our borders, confirms Elizabeth Polito Barrios. Many groups in Mexico and elsewhere are demanding of our synthesis and use it to weigh on some international decisions that affect the field. They also denounce their government to human rights violations which are daily victims in favor of the Indians Zapatista rebellion: intimidation, imprisonment, militarization, repression… These actions are very important to us.” They are about two thousand correspondents to receive direct or indirect in the world of synthesis CIACH – daily or weekly – via e-mail. In early 1999, a web page was opened on the Internet and allows permanent access to the information collected.

With civil society

The current activities of CIACH and its links with civil society in Chiapas vary the rhythm of the news. From early 1994, when the Zapatista Indian uprising in late 1996, when the suspension of negotiations between insurgents and authorities, the CIACH was an active member of the Coordination of civil associations in Chiapas for Peace (CONPAZ). Essentially representative of an urban population tends to favor the Chiapas indigenous rebellion and order to ensure a political solution to the conflict by peaceful means, the CONPAZ touched all areas dear to its members: humanitarian assistance to indigenous communities displaced by the conflict, community development projects in the rebel regions, organization of Indian women to voice their demands equality, etc…

Thanks to the means of international solidarity, important in the early years of the uprising, the CONPAZ also provides Much of the work of logistics related to different phases of the negotiation process between Zapatistas and government: accreditation of observers from civil society, protection of the delegation of the EZLN, oganisation of human chains (“cinturón los de la paz” ) as security cordons around the table of the negotiations…

Within the CONPAZ, staff CIACH specifically assumed responsibility for the work of information in pursuing its usual work of writing and editing, but also taking into support relations with the press. The CONPAZ but did not survive. Subject to internal wrangling over the distance to be against the leaders of the rebellion, a victim of its success, the news knocked and redoubled the curiosity of the authorities, the association, upon dissolution, gave way to to Other attempts at coordination point.

Today, CIACH regular contact with the association”Enlace Civil”, prozapatiste pressure group that gathers information from the native villages, about violations of human rights because of the federal army or paramilitary groups. On the occasion of the various elections in Chiapas (July 1997 parliamentary, municipal, October 1998), the CIACH also serves as a relay to the association”Alianza Civica”, specializing in the observation of elections and the reporting of irregularities within communities. Past two years, the staff of the Information Centre has also participated in the Commission’s efforts for community reconciliation (CORECO) which includes, besides the Centre, an organization of human rights, NGO development and Alianza Civica. The goal is to resolve conflicts within and between communities that divide the natives. Work is being done by the verbal confrontation between opposing parties and a flat common causes of social and political divisions.

Funding and perspectives

The problem of the functioning of CIACH remains crucial. The team needs resources to ensure its daily editorial (salaries, office rent…), purchase and maintenance of equipment, but also for printing the numbers La Palabra, dissemination and their discussion within organizations and independent villages of Chiapas.”At the moment, even if our international correspondents and local associations who can pay us in exchange for the palabra or information that we provide, our aim in the short term can not be profitability, says one member. If at the beginning, we have benefited from the logistical support of any local organization, today we depend almost exclusively on subsidies from foreign NGOs, Canada and Belgium… The urgency for us is the strength, peace in Chiapas, the improvement of living conditions of Indians and their participation in democracy building. Otherwise, we will see. I do not know of any independent media that have reached break even…”

Financially, it is clear that the CIACH directly benefits from the attention generated beyond the borders of Mexico by the news of Chiapas. But it could also be the victim. While in the past, there was no plethora of initiatives in the field of activity covered by the CIACH, the current conflict between the federal army and the Zapatista rebellion has attracted a lot of people in the south- is Mexican, many journalists and social workers… with their own projects in information. The result is confusion among the initiatives in the presence and, consequently, the potential weakening of CIACH. Its members know and are aware of the benefit that could draw the authorities. Fragile and financially dependent on the outside, the Centre has however decided to continue its choice: retain its independence vis-à-vis government authorities but also vis-à-vis the EZLN, and continue its”information work in favor of popular demands for Chiapas Mexico and a fairer, freer and more democratic.”

Bernard Duterme

Journalist and sociologist, he is currently responsible for relations with Mexico and Latin America within the NGO and Brotherhood Mutual. Author of”Indians and Zapatista. Myths and Realities of a rebellion on borrowed time” (1998).


CIACH – Centro de Informacion y Analisis de Chiapas, AC
Calle Comitan 6-B, El Barrio Cerrill
San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas – Mexico
Tel / fax (967) 813-64.

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Notebooks From an AP Civil Rights “Race Beat” Reporter

Newseum Houses Reporter’s Treasure Chest of Memories

“It Was Scary In Those Phone Booths”

Last updated Friday January 5th, 2007
Share Your Reporter’s Treasure Chest of Memories


Yes, late last year I had my “15 minutes of fame.”

A photograph taken more than 40 years ago in Birmingham of me — an Associated Press newsman — interviewing Martin Luther King, Jr., with lieutenants Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth looking on — is the front cover of a new book, The Race Beat, co-authored by Eugene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff.

The photograph above shows this young, skinny newsman named Jim Purks interviewing Dr. King (right)while King’s top lieutenants, Shuttlesworth, (left) and Abernathy, next to Purks, look on. The photograph was taken one night in 1964 in Birmingham, Alabama after the three civil rights leaders emerged from a meeting with Birmingham mayor Albert Boutwell during a particularly tense time in the civil rights movement there. (To date, the person who took the photograph has not been identified.)

The book, by the way, is superb. It’s awesome. Every journalist, aspiring journalist, and former journalist would benefit from reading it. Sixteen years in preparation, it is meticulously researched and is not a quick scan.

My image on the front cover and so forth — that’s all very fine. I feel honored to somehow represent the front-line reporters who worked in the trenches in those days, often in perilous situations, reporting on events and personalities that combined to transform our nation. They seem distant now, and many are being lost to the casualties of old age. There are of course many records including in places like the BBC video reels which you can access online if you can watch British TV abroad.

But let’s focus on something far more important than what could be perceived as an ego trip. Let’s concentrate on a small item in that photograph: the reporter’s notebook I am holding at that moment. There’s possibly a message for you, my esteemed reporter colleagues. Yes, I loved the fleeting acclaim of being on the front cover of a book, but the most fulfilling and, yes, thrilling part of this whole thing has been what I did with that notebook and ten other notebooks I saved from that era. This past November, I met with Peggy Engel, Managing Editor of the Newseum, and donated those notebooks to the Newseum — to be seen by present and future generations. The Newseum will be a $400 million (or so) facility at the foot of the Capitol in Washington, D. C., dedicated to the news media of past, present and future.

Thoughts As I Walked Over The Ruins

For some reason I saved those notebooks for more than four decades. They contain quotes from Dr. King, Abernathy, Shuttlesworth, Andrew Young, James Orange, and many other civil rights leaders. Quotes from Dallas County Sheriff James Clark of Selma, and other authorities. One notebook contains some of the most hate-filled quotes you’ll ever read from a white supremacist. Another notebook has impressions and quotes I scribbled down as I walked over the ruins of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham — blown apart by a Klan-placed bomb, with four black girls killed in the blast. A couple of other notebooks have quotations taken from people I covered after the AP transferred me to the Tallahassee AP bureau — including a presidential candidate who campaigned in Florida. Why did I save those notebooks all those years through numerous moves? Now I know. They really didn’t belong to me; they belong to the ages. I donated them; I don’t really care if my name is seen or not at the Newseum.

No laptops, cell phones, small tape recorders

They testify to a journalism period now gone, in many respects. We didn’t have those small tape recorders in those days. We used Gregg shorthand or any kind of shorthand we could come up with to take down quotes and make notes on what we observed. We didn’t have cell phones. We didn’t have laptops. We had to make sure we had some nickels, dimes and quarters in our pockets when it became necessary to rush to a pay telephone (I once raced with a UPI reporter and got there first when he fell) and call in our stories. I still remember with a shudder standing in a lighted telephone booth, surrounded by darkness and angry local townspeople eager to clobber the “outside agitators” and “foreign” journalists who dared to report on civil rights marches, meetings, beatings and killings. It was scary in those phone booths. Holding those reporter notebooks in one hand, phone in the other, we did our jobs. May those who visit the Newseum get a feel for such moments of journalism history!

There’s more. And heed well fellow reporter — you should have seen Peggy Engel’s eyes light up when I pulled out a couple of other items from my “treasure chest.” She was thrilled to get the three pages of notes and sketches I did while a cub reporter on The News and Observer of Raleigh, NC back in 1958. I accompanied a veteran reporter to cover a gas chamber execution of a black man convicted of raping and slashing a white woman. I did some sketches, I jotted down notes on the pellet dropping into a solution underneath the prisoner’s chair. I had made notes of how his body reacted as the fumes arose. How many minutes before a doctor pronounced the prisoner as dead (a long darn time!)These were items from a reporter’s perspective, in his own writing and emotions — ideal for the Newseum. (And if you have a concern about social justice, as I do, it speaks volumes about the awfulness of capital punishment)

That wasn’t all. Mrs. Engel again was so pleased when I turned over for posterity a newspaper clipping going back more than four decades: a photograph, printed in The Tampa Tribune, showing reporter Jim Purks and the then-fire chief as they are in the direct path of a collapsing wall at a warehouse fire. The cutline said that “nimble footwork” by the reporter and fire chief enabled them to escape serious injury. Got that right! But it was just what the Newseum is seeking: yes, events and personalities covered by reporters, but also items showing events and personalities impacting on reporters at work.

So, in summary, a question: What notebooks, what memorabilia have you been carrying around for years that might be of value to future generations and be a tribute to a profession we love? Look in the attic, check out your own potential treasure chest. Share with others. You mattered then. You matter now. We all have things we can pass on.

Jim Purks reported the civil rights scene of the 1960s. He was also a reporter for the Raleigh News and Observer and The Tampa Tribune and later became a public information officer for the Florida secretary of state. He was a writer in the Carter White House and is now retired and an active vocational deacon in the Episcopal Church in Americus, Georgia.

Writing Credit to
Further Information on Proxies –

“I never shall forget the night we started our big barrage, the night before the drive started,” the American soldier wrote to his wife. “It had rained all evening, and we had been marching for several hours.”

The candle flickered in the dugout somewhere near the Meuse River in France, and a little hot wax spilled onto the page of the letter.

The soldier scribbled an apology to his wife for the spilled wax, and, lonely, wet and cold, he poured out words of another weary day in the fall of 1918 during the “War To End All Wars”, World War I.

Although he didn’t know it then, the end of the war was just ahead. It would later be known as Armistice Day in the United States, marking a truce between the Central Powers and Allies. The pact directed that hostilities cease at 11 o’clock of that 11th day of that 11th month of 1918. But until that hour, the soldier plodded on.

“Arrived at a woods near the front lines right by some of our big, barking guns,” he wrote. “That night I was soaked through. I woke from my bed on the ground and found I was sleeping in a puddle of water with rain still coming down. I was so tired I fell off to sleep with the heavy bombardment barking from all around us. Lay in this condition until daybreak,” he wrote, painting a picture that captured some of his agony of war and revealing to me a facet of my father’s life that I had never known.

The letter created one of the scenes and stories that leaped into life when, decades later, I opened the delicate brown pages of letters carefully preserved in an old cardboard box by his wife — my mother. When my father wrote those letters to his 22-year-old wife of one year, he was a 22-year-old sergeant of a U.S. Army combat engineer company. He had recorded in diary fashion events of the last few months of World War One as his Fifth Division, 7th Engineers, Company “D”, slogged through the mud of eastern France toward Germany building pontoon bridges, stringing barbed wire, digging trenches and building roads to help move the men and machines of war.

In later years while his four children were growing up, my dad rarely spoke about the gritty scenes of war.  There were times when we watched an old film or an newsreel from the BBC archive online.   Oh, he did mention seeing his company commander obliterated by a direct artillery shot while astride his beautiful white horse, whose welfare was of greater concern by the men than that of the commander. Other than that, few stories were told and no one seemed to ask — least of all me, his youngest who, when old enough to begin inquiring about World War One, was immersed in the excitement of the Louisiana maneuvers and World War Two.

But around our house in the ‘thirties, November 11th was always Armistice Day. On that day, dad draped the flag on our front porch. On that day at 11 o’clock in the morning, there was silence everywhere for two minutes. On that day at that hour everyone stood still. Cars stopped. It was a day designed to preserve the memory of the 320,000 American casualties in that European conflict.

As our wars flourished during the century, Congress in its wisdom decided to lump their many commemorative days (will we get a new one soon?) all into one day – Nov. 11 – and call it Veterans Day. While their wisdom eliminated the need for creating a host of holidays for the various wars, however, it diluted the significance of them all – especially the 88-year-old World War I after whom the day was created. So the memory of that conflagration has all but escaped American memory.

But not at our house today. For reasons that might be best understood in a re-reading of how my dad slept in a mud puddle somewhere in France in 1918, the flag will fly at our place that day because it is Armistice Day.

Written by – By DUANE BRADFORD
Credit –

Additional – For some of the best documentaries and history programmes that cover the 2nd World War then you should try the BBC’s online services. For those outside the UK the best VPN service for the BBC will help you get access instead of being blocked.

There’s no doubt that digital crime is becoming more pervasive as technology develops. It’s also becoming increasingly complex and more difficult for police to investigate sometimes incredibly sophisticated crimes. The primary issue is of course, that the criminals may have never actually visited the country where the crime is committed. Indeed many criminals will always ensure they never visit any of their ‘target’ countries simply to avoid risk of arrest.

When so much time and effort is involved in investigating digital crimes, it’s important that legislation is in place to ensure prosecution is possible to. This includes prosecuting associates and people assisting in these criminal activities. Often these people are actually easier to catch as there is more chance of there being physical evidence.

Remember that any professional cyber criminal will hide both their identity and location online using things like residential and sneaker proxies.  These can be used to hide your IP address and prevent the authorities from obtaining any evidence too.  The weakness in most online criminal activities is when the proceeds are cashed or delivered, even depositing into an off line bank account can be difficult.

Solicitors and other members of the legal profession who work with criminal gangs to help them in their activities could face imprisonment of up to five years under new proposals from the Home Office. These proposals form part of the Serious Crimes Bill, announced today in the Queen’s Speech.

The bill also includes other provisions to facilitate a crackdown on organised crime. These include enhanced abilities for the seizure of criminal assets and the closure of loopholes that previously allowed some criminals to keep what they had gained from illegal activities.

In order to be prosecuted under the new bill, specifically under the offence of “participation in an organised crime group,” it will have to be established by prosecutors that a defendant had “reasonable grounds to suspect” that their activities were aiding criminals and facilitating crime.  These of course are real crimes, with proper victims and not the generic copyright issues which often are seen disputed online.  It’s not the place to consider copying that Harry Potter film or that a few thousand ex-pats have learnt how to download videos from BBC iPlayer.

The Home Office claimed that some lawyers, along with other professionals such as accountants, are wilfully assisting criminals by deliberately failing to ask questions about why their services are needed, and then later claiming ignorance of any criminal activity. Karen Bradley, a Home Office Minister, welcomed the proposals. She said that “Nobody is above the law. But for too long corrupt lawyers, accountants and other professionals have tried to evade justice by hiding behind a veneer of respectability.” She went on to suggest that the new law would [send] out a clear message” to professionals who were “helping to oil the wheels of organised crime.”

However, many voices within the legal industry have spoken out in opposition to the proposals. These include president of the Law Society Nicholas Fluck. While stressing that he had “no sympathy” for solicitors who aided criminals, Fluck said that it was questionable whether the laws would make any real difference given the regulatory and statutory obligations that solicitors are already under. He also said that the issue of criminal intent had to be looked at carefully. Requiring defendants to prove they did not have “reasonable grounds to suspect” that they were facilitating crime might result in a reversal of the burden of proof.

Richard Atkinson, chairman of the criminal law committee of the Law Society, joined Fluck in criticising the law. Atkinson asked whether the government may be “seeking to impose on lawyers and other professionals a duty to enquire into the workings of their clients.”

The world wide web started it’s life in the laboratories of CERN in the early 1980s.  In the years to follow censorship seemed a completely unlikely, indeed there were very few closed doors anywhere.  I remember logging into the University of Wales library system using telnet and was surprised when I was prompted for a password – then realizing it was actually blank.  However times have changed and now filtering, blocking and censorship are commonplace even among liberal democratic nations. It’s not only countries and states though, you even need a VPN to access something like UK TV from France – read this!

Inside much less than a decade, the Web in Europe has certainly evolved from a virtually unfettered environment to just one in which filtering in the majority of countries, particularly throughout the European Union (EU), is the norm rather than the exemption. Compared with a number of the nations in other regions which block out Web content, the rise of filtering in Europe is notable because of its deviation from a powerful culture of democratic processes and a commitment to free expression. Filtering comes about in a variety of varieties, including things like the state-ordered take- down of prohibited content on domestically hosted Web sites, the barring of illegal content hosted overseas, and the filtering of results by online search engine pertaining to unlawful content.

As in most nations around the world that engage In filtering, the distinction between voluntary as well as state mandated filtering is to some degree blurred in Europe. In many instances filtering by Internet service providers (ISPs), search engines, and content providers in Europe is labelled “voluntary” but is carried outwith the implicit understanding that collaboration with state powers will help prevent further regulations on the issue. The scope of illegal web content that is filtered in Europe mostly is limited to child pornography, racism, and material which encourages hatred and terrorism, although more recently there have been proposals and modifications of laws in some countries that deal with filtering in other areas such as copyright and gambling.

Filtering also occurs on account of defamation laws; this particular practice has been criticized, specifically in the UK, for curtailing lawful online behavior and supporting an excessively threatening notice-and take down policy, where ISPs comply by removing content immediately for concern of legal action. ISPs in Europe do not have any kind of general obligation to monitor Internet use and are protected from liability for illegal content by regulations at the European Union (EU) level, but must filter such web content once it is brought to their notice. Therefore the degree of filtering in member states relies on the efforts of governments, police, advocacy groups, and the general public in determining and reporting illegal content.

Initiatives over the past years have been underway to create a set of common plans and strategies at the EU-level on Internet policy. This is viewed as required to promote regional competitiveness and business, to counter Internet crime and terrorism, and to offer as a platform to share best practices among nations. Notable advancements in policy at the EU level– even though not directly in the area of filtering consist of the interpretation of ISP liability toward illegal content and responsibilities toward information retention.


A group of students at one of Russia’s most important Universities have claimed a small triumph against plans to move them during the World cup.  The state have decided that their campus is to be designated a ‘fan zone’ during the whole of the FIFA 2018 World Cup tournament.   This has not gone down well with the students at the Moscow State University who have been literally told to leave.


Not only is the campus area being fitted with big screens displaying the matches but their rooms are in danger too.  It is planned to house many of the National Guard who will be running the security option in their rooms too.  The event starts in June and runs for four weeks however it is thought the students might be told to leave for longer.

The situation is worse for the students who are actually having their exams moved forward to May in order to accommodate this.  Indeed further complaints are regarding this timetabling as some students are having their exams compressed in order to allow this world cup modification!   Not surprisingly the students are angry and an online petition has already garnered over 11,000 signatures.

Russia is obviously very proud of the fact that they have won the right to host the World cup and in many senses the event has great political significance for their leaders.  Although football is not quite as popular as in many European countries, although you will find many watching foreign football.  Indeed many use a VPN to watch German and UK football shows like Match of the Day onlineread this for information.

The petition has now been delivered to Vladimir Putin and the Mayor of Moscow asking for this fan zone to be moved.    It is unlikely that this will happen though as the Russian state is not known for bowing to public pressure and certainly not in response to social media movements.

Indeed the petition was initially being blocked by the University itself and the attempt to deliver a physical version was stopped.  Security guards prevented access to the Dean’s office to the protesting students.   Hopefully this will change as their seems to be a softening in their stance in the last few days.  You can follow the latest on Russian TV, but you may have to change your IP address to Russia to access.

The students have been promised to be relocated temporarily while their rooms are being used.   Also the University have promised to return their exam timetable to it’s initial schedule.

John Williams



The political situation in Northern Ireland is extremely tense and volatile at the moment. However women’s rights campaigners have been hoping that the flux in power may lead to some important changes in legislation particularly those around women’s rights and abortion.

CAMPAIGNERS on both sides of the abortion debate in Northern Ireland were last night speculating on the impact of potentially radical changes in the Republic and whether it’ll pave the way for females throughout the island to have access to legal termination. With pledges given by southern wellness minister Simon Harris that fresh draft legislation will include a provision for abortion without restrictions up to 12 weeks after conception, professional life groups expressed concern it might lead to abortion on demand. Choice bodies were eager to stress that women from the north shouldn’t be made to seek services in other jurisdictions, but admitted that travel might soon become easier – possibly no longer than 90 minutes away.

The political agendas of both the leading parties in Northern Ireland are often completely opposed in some areas.  You can see much of the coverage on local TV stations and those abroad like the BBC iPlayer which you can access here.

About 700 women travel to England from Northern Ireland every year for abortions, with prices ranging between 200 and fourteen hundred pounds plus. While NHS abortions for females from the north were introduced last year in Britain, travel and accommodation costs must be covered. Amid warnings about the rise in the number of women using prohibited abortion pills – it’s estimated that 500 were acquired in the north last year – and worries of prosecution, campaigners also say a short trip to the Republic could become a better choice for some women. There are cross – border healthcare arrangements in relation to kid’s heart surgery and cancer solutions however, it remains unclear whether the government of the Republic would follow the example of the NHS and also offers free abortion to women from the north.

In the mean time, any further discussion of the abortion issue in Stormont is subject to a discovery at the most recent round of talks to restore the devolved institutions. A report completed by means of an assembly working group over one year ago, which can be understood to recommend changes to strict abortion legislation in cases of a fatal feotal abnormality – was withheld from publication because civil servants say they require a minister to sign off its release.   Further information and additional coverage can be found online particularly in Catholic countries like Spain here. The assembly has voted against allowing women to terminate pregnancies. Guidance for health workers providing advice to women seeking abortion services in Britain remains on the shelf, with Department of Health civil servants seeking legal advice.

Horror Shooting in Broward County

February 15th, 2018

It’s perhaps the saddest thing of all, a massacre in a US school no longer seems like a surprise. In many ways the horrors that don’t happen anywhere else on this planet are becoming everyday events. Yet the non-response from US politicians continue to baffle the rest of the developed world.

Soon before 5: 45 a.m. Thursday, the young man accused in a shooting that left more than a dozen people dead was escorted to Broward’s main prison in Fort Lauderdale. Nikolas Cruz was encompassed By Broward the sheriff who walked inside the facility. Some 15 hours before, the deadliest school shooting since Sandy Hook surfaced as authorities say a 19 year old man with a troubled past and an AR-15 rifle stalked the halls of Parkland’s Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. Expelled from school on disciplinary troubles, Cruz is accused of squeezing shot after the shot as pupils took cover under desks, fire alarms blared and educators barricaded classrooms.

By the time it was over, some 17 people were dead or dying, and 16 were wounded. The AR-15 employed from the mass shooting was purchased By Cruz, lawyer Jim Lewis told the South Florida Sun Sentinel. Cruz already possessed the gun when he moved in with his buddy’s family in northwest Broward around Thanksgiving, Lewis said. This was his gun, Lewis said. The family made him keep it in a locked gun cabinet in the home, but he’d a secret. The family didn’t see him shooting at the AR-15, but did see him shooting guns, Lewis said. Cruz was arrested off campus and was taken to Broward Sheriff’s Office headquarters in Fort Lauderdale.

The events are of course being covered extensively on world media, there are even videos made by pupils who were trapped during the shootings. I think however one of the most poignant speeches in response to this tragedy was by Chris Murphy, a US Senator from the Sandy Hook district, the site of an even worse school massacre. His point was that this simply doesn’t happen anywhere else in the world. It’s worth watching and is currently on the BBC News which you can watch from anywhere using this service – or google it as it may be available on other channels.

Though some students described Cruz as a normal teenager, others and a number of his neighbours called him odd, gloomy and distressed. A firearms enthusiast whose adoptive mother died last Nov, Cruz talked about shooting lizards, squirrels and frogs, said Trevor Hart, who knew him from Spanish course and said he seemed a little off. , Police were called to his home several times, said Shelby Speno, a neighbor, and that he was seen shooting at a neighbor’s cows. He wore a hoodie and always had his head down, said a neighbor, Janine Kartiganer. He looked depressed. Panicked parents streamed to the wealthy section of northwest Broward County on Wednesday mid-day, as information helicopters broadcast the episode live, cops crouched behind vehicles with trained weapons and students congregated on roads, many crying, hugging and phoning buddies and family.

In a blurry Snapchat image of within the college, a guy cried, Oh, my God, as the pop, pop of gunshots rang out and students screamed. Broward Sheriff Scott Israel said 17 people were killed, including both students and adults, with just two taken beyond the school, one in the street, 12 inside the school and two dying from their wounds in the hospital. Five of the victims stay unknown. He said. This was the worst school shooting since 26 kids and adults were taken to death at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut in 2012. PHOTOS: Taking South Florida high school. The scene in Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida.

Application used for watching BBC iPlayer in Ireland – available here.

Education is the main agent of transformation towards growth of any society, increasing people’s abilities to transform their visions to reality. Educating your population not only provides technical and scientific skills, in addition, it also helps with the motivation and social support for implementing and pursuing them.

Because of this, most societies have to be profoundly concerned that much of current schooling falls far short of what’s needed. Improving the quality and disclosure of schooling associations and reorienting its goals to recognize the value of sustainability development has to be among society’s highest priorities. We therefore should clarify the concept of education for creating sustainable growth.

The significance of sustainable development in any economy requires set ups, the right equilibrium of peace, human rights, citizenship, social fairness themes. Yet trying to fit these into an already overloaded curricula can be difficult. Sure, there are ways of incorporating the humanities, the social sciences associations and the arts to include these goals. However what has also been practiced can be seen as a branch of science instruction.   Obviously the levels vary depending on which country or society you are looking at.  In some places there are very basic human rights being denied while others might consider internet censorship and the ability to streaming BBC News abroad through a VPN a priority. Some educational professionals have long argued that teaching for sustainable growth runs the possible risk of programming. On the other hands, others have wondered if requesting schools to have a lead to the transition to sustainable growth was simply asking too much of them.

These debates were exacerbated by the desire of most, mostly ecological, nongovernmental associations to contribute to academic preparation without the required understanding of how educational systems work. It is crucial to know how educational innovation and change occurs, and of applicable program development, professional advancement and educational values.

Many international, regional associations and national initiatives have contributed to the expansion of such associations and refined understanding of the meaning of instruction for sustainable growth.

Under the major umbrella group of various trade unions associations throughout the world, there has been real progress in promoting economic and social growth through education. A common agenda in any of those is the need for an integrated approach through which communities, government entities, collaborate.  A recent documentary on RTE provided an interesting viewpoint on this although you’ll need an Irish proxy to access it from outside Ireland.  These require creating a shared understanding of and dedication to policies, strategies and programs of instruction for sustainable growth.

Actively encouraging the integration of education into any social model for a local community will definitely create many benefits. Many individual governments have established committees, panels, advisory councils associations and program growth projects to discuss these aims and develop the policies and right support structures. The roots of education for human development are rigorously rooted in the ecological education efforts of such groups. Along with global education, instruction, peace work, guidance on citizenship, human rights promotion. Intertwined with these subjects also involves multicultural and anti racist programmes that have all been especially significant in promoting well being in developed nations.

Inside the North Korean Gulag

January 9th, 2018

With depressing regularity, we hear tales about military provocations from South Korea and the North’s ongoing attempts to develop atomic weapons. Alas much of the North Korean news is rarely regarding the suffering of it’s people. More likely we hear about trivialities such as the opening of a theme park or the shameful antics of a former basket ball star. An issue of much greater significance than the stories that are trivial, and of equal value to the security concerns, gets just scant coverage: North Korea’s dreadful record on human rights. In February, an unparalleled United Nations Commission of Inquiry published a report which exhaustively documents the range of North Korea’s repression. In uncharacteristically blunt language and drawing on hours of testimony from North Korean refugees and defectors, that the COI laid out that the unparalleled horrors of human rights abuses within the country.

It reasoned that North Korea’s government was committing offenses from humanity from its own people and called on that the countries of the world to act. Foremost among these crimes is the ongoing presence of political prison camps which share many aspects of the Nazi concentration peaks or the Soviet gulags. While hard numbers understandably vary broadly, most experts agree that between 100, 000 and 200, 000 North Koreans are now held in a community of vast camps, a number of which will be the size of small cities. Maintained separately from the prisons for regular crimes, North Korea’s gulags subject prisoners to appalling conditions.

Under North Korea’s ruthless system, 3 generations of families will be punished for the so called crimes of a single person. Every aspect of life there is that that the worst you can imagine as a human being. It’s something against all normal moral standards, punishing family members for crimes they didn’t commit. This is especially harsh in North Korea where ‘criminal behaviour’ is likely to be arbitrary or simply something that displeases the State.  In fact it’s very likely to be trivial, indeed even trying to access a mobile phone network or internet connection will get you into trouble.  North Koreans still try though the cost of an online IP changer like this which can protect your internet connection are prohibitive for most outside the elite class.

Take for example the story of one North Korean – Kang. When his grandfather was arrested for alleged political offenses, Kang was sent to the gulag together with his grandma, father, uncle, and sister. He was assigned to forced labour brigades, like other kids in the camps. Long denied by that the Kim regime and frequently overlooked by that the rest of that the world, these peaks have been exposed by the reform of an escalating number of refugees, and satellite imagery.

Those searching for North Korea to reform will be likely to be disappointed. The camps became a necessary Part of the Kim dynasty’s machines for maintaining power. Ahn Myeong Chul, who served as a guard in that the gulags and saw his members of the family sent to a camp noted in a latest Interview: The presence of political jail camps is vital for maintaining the regime.


Further reports on BBC News – Accessing BBC from Ireland/Outside UK

What is the real cause of Islamic radicalisation?  The obvious answer is of course, religion – but is it really religious fervor that’s totally to blame.  A recent report suggests that it’s not that straightforward and there are many other factors which are likely to blame.   What is worse, these other drivers are usually ignored by government responses who tend to focus purely on the ideological aspects.  Perhaps we are focusing in the wrong direction, it’s certainly worth considering.

When you drill down to some raw statistics, there are some interesting facts.  Analyzing where the terrorists come from, their social classes, their background can help illustrate the driving force behind their actions.   One of the most striking facts is that many terrorists and suicide bombers have had very superficial commitment to their faith. More than half had little understanding of religious texts, from those who had joined extremist groups in Africa.

These facts are crucial, this is data directly concerning the people who are committing Islamic related offences.   The respondents are from the most deprived countries in the continent, another pointer to perhaps the true driving force of these acts.   Although most of the acts are committed in the name is Islam, the criminals are rarely devout muslims.   For most it is a response to a poor economic and social situation.  In the west, a youngster who had problems with drugs or alcohol could get help perhaps with a drug like Selincro but there would not be that support in less developed countries. These young people who abuse drugs, alcohol and visit prostitutes can seemingly ignore these actions despite them being expressly forbidden by Islamic teachings.

Most Government responses tend to be around the religious ideals. Moderate Islamic teachers and scholars are funded to attempt to combat the radicalism. So far this has been only slightly successful and it’s suggested that combating social and economic drivers may be more successful. Before committing these crimes, they are simply vulnerable people who just react to their problems in an extreme way.

Much of it possibly resolves around young people starting to value their life in this world and not in the next. The offer of paradise in some afterlife is tempting if there seems little chance of improving their lives in this one. Anyone involved in nurturing and educating young people needs to be united in a single goal to convince that each young person’s life matters.

Jim Proxy Simmons.

Muslim Hackers Fight Back

November 15th, 2017

As well as an a physical empire, the terrorist group Isis had ideas of creating an online caliphate too. However the digital Islamic state is faring in about the same way as they are in the real world – i.e not very well.    The basis of this digital empire was a huge subscribers list which formed the core of a propaganda network, unfortunately this ‘top secret’ list is no longer private.

A group of Muslim hackers have targeted the group and last week published 2000 email addresses who were part of that mailing list.  It’s probably no surprise that many security agencies are taking a long look at the email addresses on that list.

ISIS has announced that they had substantially increased security after suffering numerous attacks mainly denial based ones.   Foolishly they boasted about he increased security and how their servers were almost completely secure.  This is always an extremely bad idea online and that doesn’t matter who you are.

In fact after the announcement it took a Muslim hacking collective less than a few hours to compromise their lists.  The emails were from the ‘news agency’ called Amaq which is a voice piece for the terrorists.  In fact many claims for terror attack responsibilities are released through Amaq’s website.  The numerous attacks had made Amaq focus more on distribution and messaging services – the subscriber list was one of the few secure channels left for the group.   Some experts say they now are reduced to a telegram messaging service which is hardly the core of an online digital caliphate.

There are many vigilante groups who target terrorists and online criminals.  It is a way for these groups to practice their skills without risking legal issues by attacking ordinary companies.  Most of the security services will turn a blind eye to these attacks on terrorist and criminal groups, in fact most will use the information received if they can.

The groups have increased their security, now pretty much all communication is encrypted and secure using things like live VPNs such as this to communicate.  However it is difficult to establish the skills and resources to both prevent and secure against attacks like this.

One group is even releasing fake news announcements from Isis in an attempt to confuse and undermine the terrorist messages. The propaganda war has been fought very effectively by the terrorists for many years, yet now they are losing this too.   It is becoming increasingly difficult for ISIS to communicate effectively with their sympathizers especially because of all the ‘fake isis’ stories and reports being released online.

John Heathers

Author of : Anonymous Surfing Techniques.


Is change about to finally come to Zimbabwe, is the oldest leader in the world about to be relieved from power. For those who love Zimbabwe, there is at last some hope yet tinged with fear that ‘Bob’ is to be replaced by someone even worse. The news is fragmented and much of it coming through political sources in both Zimbabwe and South Africa. A decade of war is presently ending. The majority of the country includes an elevated plateau, known as a veld. The ANC government has an obligation to serve and safeguard the poor and the ability to finish all evictions. Since you can understand, a regime born within this way can barely last very long.

Eurocentrism in its worst has generated a cacophony that has been set against the interest of the community oppressed minorities and worldwide cooperation and mutual comprehension. Since that time, the creation of these lands, and the entire nation, has plunged. Fela made a decision to take Koola Lobitos to america. At precisely the same time, the exact same ANC is subtly blaming those who didn’t vote.

The thousands and thousands of protesters in many nations are aware that the journey will be long and tough. Three of the four big hospitals are closed as a result of inability to acquire basic medicines and supplies to operate. There’s no development separate from a rupture of this type. This divide is equally marked in regards to drinking.   There are some rudimentary filters and blocks in place on Zimbabwe’s internet access yet like much in the country they’re not very effective.  You can bypass with a simple DNS change or perhaps a video proxy to change your IP address.  All these are easily available although may have some cost.

A decade of war is presently ending. The majority of the country includes an elevated plateau, known as a veld. The ANC government has an obligation to serve and safeguard the poor and the ability to finish all evictions. Since you can understand, a regime born within this way can barely last very long.

A culture is basically the society’s composite solution to the varied problems of life. The entire issue is that we really do to understand why the politics are the way that they are. Democracies constructed in this way will definitely fail over time and there’s a whole history to back this assertion. It’s an ideology that attacks the entire community. Ignorance of different cultures hasn’t been readily admitted by people who have caused those cultures to decay and crumble, today. You have to comprehend these contradictions too.

There’s no clearer singer, for example, than the Motown folks in conditions of their words. Unique kinds of music exist in all cultures throughout the world. If you like to travel and you need to have some unforgettable tour, Zimbabwe is the very best nation to see. This pattern an individual could see in all age groups. The political parties are not that different from big industrial enterprises, and the skilled politicians attempt to sell their wares to the general public.   The easiest way to get a balanced view is via an international news service, I watch the BBC News Online for my information.

Zimbabwe is situated in the southern portion of Africa and is landlocked. If Africans wish to go farther, this is among the issues that they should pay close and intense attention to. America cannot win in Afghanistan. A black bank is currently a topic of absolute urgency if black small business wishes to free itself. Nobody is suggesting that it isn’t the work of liberal Whites to oppose what’s wrong. This innovation a part of the organic development of any culture.

There has to be something the folks of goodwill here in Mzantsi can do. There’s no salvation outside this rejection. On Wednesday, Chinas Foreign Ministry explained the visit proved to be a normal military exchange and had no connection to the coup.

If you can locate the moment. So, the majority of the time was spent getting the suitable sound. Somebody said that a lengthy, long time before, and I said Fiddlesticks. In addition, there are numerous remarkable places that you’re able to visit and you’ll surely have a complete itinerary for your tour.

A culture is basically the society’s composite solution to the varied problems of life. The entire issue is that we really do to understand why the politics are the way that they are. Democracies constructed in this way will definitely fail over time and there’s a whole history to back this assertion. It’s an ideology that attacks the entire community. Ignorance of different cultures hasn’t been readily admitted by people who have caused those cultures to decay and crumble, today. You have to comprehend these contradictions too.

There’s no clearer singer, for example, than the Motown folks in conditions of their words. Unique kinds of music exist in all cultures throughout the world. If you like to travel and you need to have some unforgettable tour, Zimbabwe is the very best nation to see. This pattern an individual could see in all age groups. The political parties are not that different from big industrial enterprises, and the skilled politicians attempt to sell their wares to the general public.

Zimbabwe is situated in the southern portion of Africa and is landlocked. If Africans wish to go farther, this is among the issues that they should pay close and intense attention to. America cannot win in Afghanistan. A black bank is currently a topic of absolute urgency if black small business wishes to free itself. Nobody is suggesting that it isn’t the work of liberal Whites to oppose what’s wrong. This innovation a part of the organic development of any culture.

There has to be something the folks of goodwill here in Mzantsi can do. There’s no salvation outside this rejection. On Wednesday, Chinas Foreign Ministry explained the visit proved to be a normal military exchange and had no connection to the coup.

If you can locate the moment. So, the majority of the time was spent getting the suitable sound. Somebody said that a lengthy, long time before, and I said Fiddlesticks. In addition, there are numerous remarkable places that you’re able to visit and you’ll surely have a complete itinerary for your tour.

To the free world, they’re places to chat, laugh and hang out but in some countries social networks are far more important.   Much has been spoken of the role of social networking sites in civil protests.  Many people think that the Arab Spring wouldn’t have happened without the likes of Twitter, Facebook and other similar sites.  Certainly these sites make it easier for people to share information and arrange demonstrations – however the danger of using these is often ignored or at best understated.

The problem is that although these sites are indeed well used by protesters and human rights activists throughout the world, they are also extensively monitored by security services and governments too.  Countries like Iran and Syria have many people monitoring these sites, with the advantage that they also control the infrastructure.  If needed any security service can block or throttle access to any part of the internet they desire, restricting access is not a problem.  The reality is that they are a huge source of valuable information on anyone protesting in their country.

This is why human rights organisations are developing a series of technologies to reduce the risks.  There are basic steps which should be taken by anyone for example encrypting your connection and routing through a UK proxy server or any Western democracy.

Take for instance a protester uploading a picture of regime brutality or a demonstration using their mobile phone.  It is of course important to get information like this out to the outside world, however any image might reveal the identities of fellow protesters, locations and put peoples lives at further risk.   One application that has been for mobile phones is called Obscurecam – developed by human rights activists it allow people to censor pictures on their phones quickly and easily.  You could perhaps blur the faces of protesters or any information that might give away location.

This is the first of many applications to be developed with  the intention of making sharing information slightly safer in places like Iran.  However there is a limit to how much you can do when a regime does control all internet access and has huge resources at it’s disposal.  It’s difficult for people to be completely anonymous but there’s no doubt that web posts like this – and these security applications help.]

Chinese Tech Crackdown

July 22nd, 2017

If you’re a technology firm operating in China, you’re probably used to the State’s demands on censorship related matters.  However things are about to move up a notch with companies being told to actively upgrade their own censorship efforts.  It’s not like the internet hasn’t got enough restrictions already with most Chinese already using VPNs to stream things like the BBC News in order to get better news coverage.

China has ordered the nation’s largest technology companies to instantly “rectify” offenses and closed accounts that release “bad data”, in the most recent move by governments to tighten policing of the net. The Cyberspace Administration of China said it held a meeting this week with representatives from national tech giants Baidu, Sohu, Tencent, Netease and Phoenix to notify them of numerous offenses in articles published in their own platforms.

The offences recorded Wednesday from the government comprised misinterpreting policy directives, disseminating false information, distorting Chinese Communist Party background, plagiarising photographs, and hard public purchase.

The businesses need to “immediately … execute particular cleanup and rectification” to be able to adhere to regulations, the CAC stated in an announcement.

China tightly controls the net by means of a censorship system called the “Great Firewall” and closely tracks social networking networks for sensitive content.  Regulations in force since 2000 say sites are responsible for “ensuring that the legality of any data” submitted in their own platforms.   The CAC provided several examples of issues in articles printed by individual networking accounts on national social networking platforms.

This comprised a article on Baidu’s Baijia platform which stated the government’s policies on property were to blame for a rise in housing costs, and also the CAC known as an “reckless attack”.  The CAC also slammed Tencent for permitting the release of a post titled, “a Chinese warplane crashed to a US aircraft carrier, killing three US soldiers” , which was be a plot out of a tv series.  New regulations which came into force on June 1 demand online platforms to find a permit to post information reports or comment regarding the government, economy, army, foreign affairs, and social difficulties.

In other recent movements, police have shut dozens of star gossip sites and issued new guidelines about online video content to get rid of programmes deemed offensive.  Since the departure of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo past week, censors were working in overdrive to wash any tributes to the democracy activist.  Both key words and graphics related to Liu happen to be blocked across all significant social networking platforms in China, according to analysts.

The reach of censorship associated with Liu expanded significantly after his departure, a report from the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto discovered.

“His departure (is) the very first time we see picture filtering one-to-one chat, along with image filtering class chats,” the report stated.

Nevertheless Chinese activists that have use of virtual private network (VPN) applications, allowing people to bypass the Great Firewall, have submitted tributes to Liu on Twitter and Facebook lately, such as photographs of memorials alongside bodies of water, even because his ashes were scattered at sea.